Haplogroup M45


Many peoples carrying the M9 marker moved north of the mountainous Hindu Kush and onto the steppes of modern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and southern Siberia. Àt about 35,000 to 40,000 years ago, the marker M45 was obtained by one of them which eventually defined them as the most common ancestor of Native Americans and most Europeans.

During the Ice Age to the north of Hindu Kush there were frigid temperature and difficult times. At the steppes plentiful game provided easier circumstances but the people would have to develop other skills and new ways to cope with the climate.

They refined their hunting weapons and also learned to sew and use animal skin for clothing. This adaptation which was more cultural than biological is more than likely the reason for there survival in such cold climates.

There has been no evidence of hominiods such as Homo Erectus or Neanderthals in these areas.